In light of the significant concerns surrounding the potential fabrication of legal authorities through
large language models (LLMs)1
, this Notice addresses the matter of legal references in submissions
to the courts. Our joint commitment to reinforcing the integrity and credibility of legal proceedings
Caution: The Court of Appeal of Alberta, Court of King’s Bench of Alberta, and Alberta Court
of Justice urge practitioners and litigants to exercise caution when referencing legal authorities or
analysis derived from LLMs in their submissions.
Reliance: For all references to case law, statutes or commentary in representations to the courts,
it is essential that parties rely exclusively on authoritative sources such as official court websites,
commonly referenced commercial publishers, or well-established public services such as CanLII.
"Human in the loop": In the interest of maintaining the highest standards of accuracy and
authenticity, any AI-generated submissions must be verified with meaningful human control.
Verification can be achieved through cross-referencing with reliable legal databases, ensuring that
the citations and their content hold up to scrutiny. This accords with the longstanding practice of
The Alberta Courts recognize that emerging technologies often bring both opportunities and
challenges, and the legal community must adapt accordingly. Therefore, we encourage ongoing
discussions and collaborations to navigate these complexities effectively.
Court of Appeal of Alberta
Court of King’s Bench of Alberta
Alberta Court of Justice
1 The term “large language model” refers to a type of artificial intelligence (AI) system capable of processing and
generating human-like text based on vast amounts of training data.